Maria José Camecelha (Portugal)
. Foi Assessora no Departamento de Prospectiva e Planeamento e Relações Internacionais (DPP) e na Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT). Mestre em História Cultural e Política pela Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas da Universidade Nova de Lisboa (FCSH-UNL) desenvolve actividade profissional no âmbito das Políticas Públicas e projectos probono em áreas de ensaio, fotografia, dramaturgia e produção.


Os brinquedos bons duram o ano todo*

Twain - Ritmo, Ironia e Estética. E onde está a Ética?

* Título parcialmente roubado a Brian Aldiss (1)

Comunicação ao  3º ENCONTRO TRIPLOV NA QUINTA DO FRADE. Mosteiro de Santa Maria. Lisboa, 17.07.2017


Prefácio  - s -


Pelo caminho da floresta chegamos a ‘O  Pretendente Americano’- The American Claimant , (1).  Por um atalho desaguamos no vale do Mississipi e cruzamo-nos com Hukleberry  Finn.(1884)

Por um acaso feliz (anteriormente previsto) os dois textos de Twain  têm dois prefácios raros, que  desfamiliarizam a usual relação  leitor | texto | autor , e que permitem  uma abordagem ao presente do texto  (tempo abstracto).  O verosímil é transportado para um novo plano –  e o leitor  flutua ente a ordem do discurso e a proposição do autor.

Ler o livro de uma forma “branca” – sem preconceitos – será o que nos propõe o prefácio de Hukleberry?  Motivo | Moral | Enredo |

Mas, igualmente atento ao ‘Explanatory’ o leitor hesita – será que Twain duvida da nossa inteligência?

Coisas que o leitor sabe. Hukleberry Finn  é uma narrativa. Coisas que o leitor não sabe : Como será processado, como será banido, como será morto > O que cria uma alternativa interessante ao Como | quem | porquê  Ou seja, ao que ao leitor pode dizer  respeito nada se sabe.  A não ser que talvez fosse melhor não ler o livro.

Se Hukleberry está aqui incluído, a prejudicar  o acesso ao cerne desta comunicação –  a enunciação sobre o   tempo atmosférico  no ‘Pretendente ..  de Twain -, é  porque a marca dialogante  de ambos autor | leitor é expressa numa interpelação – o que, se não nos confunde, introduz um novo elemento (de  abstracção temporal) e, da mesma forma, apela à inclusão da literatura sujeita a esta marca, saltando para fora do texto. Uma ética transgressora.

Por outro lado refira-se uma dupla, tripla … dificuldade, desta vez associada à tradução e entendimento de weather. Claro que  sem dúvida é tempo atmosférico. Mas por outro lado o detalhe da introdução de ‘The Claimant … e o remeter para o anexo (com a admitida inclusão dos Genesis – acima referido como Tempo abstracto ou (e vírgula), símbólico transforma a ironia sobre as  atmosferas em algo mais … a ver J

Figuras saídas da ironia – o mesmo e o seu contrário, param por momentos, a apreciar o efeito.

Cf. os textos incluídos por Mark Twain no seu anexo ao Pretendente Americano e, de seguida, far-se-á um pequeno comentário, relativo a Hukleberry e livros censurados.



 No weather will be found in this book. This is an attempt to pull a book through without weather. It being the first attempt of the kind in fictitious literature, it may prove a failure, but it seemed worth the while of some dare-devil person to try it, and the author was in just the mood. Many a reader who wanted to read a tale through was not able to do it because of delays on account of the weather. Nothing breaks up an author's progress like having to stop every few pages to fuss-up the weather. Thus it is plain that persistent intrusions of weather are bad for both reader and author. Of course weather is necessary to a narrative of human experience. That is conceded. But it ought to be put where it will not be in the way; where it will not interrupt the flow of the narrative. And it ought to be the ablest weather that can be had, not ignorant, poor-quality, amateur weather. Weather is a literary specialty, and no untrained hand can turn out a good article of it. The present author can do only a few trifling ordinary kinds of weather, and he cannot do those very good. So it has seemed wisest to borrow such weather as is necessary for the book from qualified and recognized experts--giving credit, of course. This weather will be found over in the back part of the book, out of the way. See Appendix. The reader is requested to turn over and help himself from time to time as he goes  along.


Tradução a partir do Google (extracto)


Nenhum tempo atmosférico será encontrado neste livro. Esta é uma tentativa de elaborar  um livro sem condições meteorológicas. Sendo um primeiro ensaio ´deste género em literatura, pode revelar-se um fracasso, mas pareceu ser a forma mais indicada para lidar com o problema.  …



Selected from the Best Authorities.

A brief though violent thunderstorm which had raged over the city was passing away; but still, though the rain had ceased more than an hour before, wild piles of dark and coppery clouds, in which a fierce and rayless glow was laboring, gigantically overhung the grotesque and huddled vista of dwarf houses, while in the distance, sheeting high over the low, misty confusion of gables and chimneys, spread a pall of dead, leprous blue, suffused with blotches of dull, glistening yellow, and with black plague-spots of vapor floating and faint lightnings crinkling on its surface. Thunder, still muttering in the close and sultry air, kept the scared dwellers in the street within, behind their closed shutters; and all deserted, cowed, dejected, squalid, like poor, stupid, top-heavy things that had felt the wrath of the summer tempest, stood the drenched structures on either side of the narrow and crooked way, ghastly and picturesque, under the giant canopy. Rain dripped wretchedly in slow 299 drops of melancholy sound from their projecting eaves upon the broken flagging, lay there in pools or trickled into the swollen drains, where the fallen torrent sullenly gurgled on its way to the river.

"The Brazen Android."- W. D. O'Connor.  (2)


The fiery mid-March sun a moment hung

Above the bleak Judean wilderness;

Then darkness swept upon us, and 't was night.

 "Easter-Eve at Kerak-Moab."--Clinton Scollard. (3)


The quick-coming winter twilight was already at hand. Snow was again falling, sifting delicately down, incidentally as it were.

"Felicia." Fanny N. D. Murfree. (4)


Merciful  heavens! The whole west, from right to left, blazes up with a fierce light, and next instant the earth reels and quivers with the awful shock of ten thousand batteries of artillery. It is the signal for the Fury to spring--for a thousand demons to scream and shriek--for innumerable serpents of fire to writhe and light up the blackness. Now the rain falls--now the wind is let loose with a terrible shriek--now the lightning is so constant that the eyes burn, and the thunder-claps merge into an awful roar, as did the 800 cannon at Gettysburg. Crash! 300 Crash! Crash! It is the cottonwood trees falling to earth. Shriek! Shriek! Shriek! It is the Demon racing along the plain and uprooting even the blades of grass. Shock! Shock! Shock! It is the Fury flinging his fiery bolts into the bosom of the earth.

"The Demon and the Fury." M. Quad. (5)


Away up the gorge all diurnal fancies trooped into the wide liberties of endless luminous vistas of azure sunlit mountains beneath the shining azure heavens. The sky, looking down in deep blue placidities, only here and there smote the water to azure emulations of its tint.

"In the Stranger's Country."

Charles Egbert Craddock. (6)


There was every indication of a dust-storm, though the sun still shone brilliantly. The hot wind had become wild and rampant. It was whipping up the sandy coating of the plain in every direction. High in the air were seen whirling spires and cones of sand--a curious effect against the deep-blue sky. Below, puffs of sand were breaking out of the plain in every direction, as though the plain were alive with invisible horsemen. These sandy cloudlets were instantly dissipated by the wind; it was the larger clouds that were lifted whole into the air, and the larger clouds of sand were becoming more and more the rule. Alfred's eye, quickly scanning the horizon, descried the roof of the boundary-rider's hut still gleaming in the sunlight. He remembered the  hut well. It could not be farther than four miles, if as much as that, from this point of the track. He also knew these dust-storms of old; Bindarra was notorious for them: Without thinking twice, Alfred put spurs to his horse and headed for the hut. Before he had ridden half the distance the detached clouds of sand banded together in one dense whirlwind, and it was only owing to his horse's instinct that he did not ride wide of the hut altogether; for during the last half-mile he never saw the hut, until its outline loomed suddenly over his horse's ears; and by then the sun was invisible.

"A Bride from the Bush."

E. W. Hornung  (7)


It rained forty days and forty nights.

Genesis (8) 



The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain, 1884


PERSONS attempting to find a motive in this narrative will be prosecuted; persons attempting to find a moral in it will be banished; persons attempting to find a plot in it will be shot.

BY ORDER OF THE AUTHOR, Per G.G., Chief of Ordenance.


In this book a number of dialects are used, to wit: the Missouri negro dialect; the extremest form of the backwoods Southwestern dialect; the ordinary “Pike County” dialect; and four modified varieties of this last. The shadings have not been done in a haphazard fashion, or by guesswork; but painstakingly, and with the trustworthy guidance and support of personal familiarity with these several forms of speech.

I make this explanation for the reason that without it many readers would suppose that all these characters were trying to talk alike and not succeeding .



Sobre Censura e Livros Banidos:

Huckleberry Finn

Scene: The Mississippi Valley Time: Forty to fifty years ago

“The first ban of Mark Twain’s American classic in Concord, MA in 1885 called it “trash and suitable only for the slums.” Objections to the book have evolved, but only marginally. Twain’s book is one of the most-challenged of all time and is frequently challenged even today because of its frequent use of the word “nigger.” Otherwise it is alleged the book is “racially insensitive,” “oppressive,” and “perpetuates racism.” (9)


Mesmo link  outro exemplo:

Fahrenheit 451, Ray Bradbury, 1953

Rather than ban the book about book-banning outright, Venado Middle school in Irvine, CA utilized an expurgated version of the text in which all the “hells” and “damns” were blacked out. Other complaints have said the book went against objectors religious beliefs. (9)

 (cf.  Colección de documentos inéditos para la historia de España - capítulos relativos a António  Perez > comentário sobre censura) (10)

E  voltemos ao Milton.

A discussão em torno da censura à literatura é antiga e, neste momento, actual


No século XVII, John Milton (1608-1674) já denunciava a censura prévia instituída na Grã-Bretanha através de seu célebre Areopagitica (1644).

O autor de Paradise Lost (1667) insurgia-se contra a Licensing Order (1643), argumentando que todos os livros deveriam ser lidos, mesmo os livros “maus” e heréticos. Tal manifesto tornou-se um dos mais importantes textos jurídico-filosóficos sobre a liberdade de expressão e a liberdade de imprensa. (11) 


EMAIL de Recusa automática

(qd o prefácio do Hukleberry Finn foi enviado para de mim para mim)

“The IT department has automatically stopped an email sent by you to because it contained profanity. The use of profane language contravenes the company’s email Acceptable Usage Policy.

If you require further information, please contact the IT helpdesk.

Stopped message details:


 Date sent: Mon, 19 Dec 2016 14:46:03 +0000

 Subject: tw

Thank You”



“A ética começa quando o outro entra em cena”


 (in Em que Crêem os que nao Crêem?  Autores : Carlo Maria Martini , Umberto Ecco, 1996) (12)


É tempo, não é clima



(1)The American Claimant by Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) – 1891

(Pt >  O Pretendente Americano, Livraria Civilização, 1964)

(2)  "The Brazen Android."- W. D. O'Connor.

cf: This 1891 science fiction story explores the legend of Friar Roger Bacon's talking Brazen Head. The writer is a bit over-idealistic on certain historical subjects and extremely biased against others, which actually is pretty amusing in the context of the points he's trying to make. (For example, few today would claim that true holiness is impossible to pre-scientific societies, or that illiteracy makes one brutish!) But once the story really gets rolling in Part 3, the story combines both science fiction and fantasy into one very interesting tale.

William Douglas O'Connor was Walt Whitman's best friend. He began writing this story in 1857, but it wasn't published until after his death. Source Atlantic Monthly, vol. 67, issues 402-403 (April-May 1891)






(5) Bertrand_Lewis





(8) Várias Fontes






Maria José Camecelha

Agosto de 2017

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